Close. It has a variable valve timing DOHC head and direct ignition. A two-speed automatic transmission was also available, as was a part-time 4WD system. A turbo was introduced on the 4WD Rex in December 1983 to increase fuel economy and reduce emissions. A supercharged version with an intercooler and electronic fuel injection was added to the options list March 1988 as a response to the success of the Alto Works and Mira TR-XX. Torque was down to 2.9 kg⋅m (28 N⋅m; 21 lb⋅ft) at 6000 rpm. Top speed was 125 km/h (78 mph), compared to 110 km/h (68 mph) for the 31 PS (23 kW) domestic version. The Fiori derivative (sold as such from summer 1989) was also equipped with pink and blue pinstriping from the factory, and a two-year, 50,000 km warranty was offered when new. [23] This, the KH1/2 series Rex (KP1/2 for the commercial Rex Combis), remained available in combination with the ECVT transmission and four-wheel-drive versions, but the two-speed automatic was dropped. The Rear engine/Rear drive version initially installed in the Sambar used a distributor, but a distributorless ignition was used from 1996 on. The engine was installed in the early Sambar van and truck. This was the first Kei four-cylinder since the Mazda Carol, and was unique to the class. :-) Subaru Generic. For power and fuel economy the engine has both SPI and a low-pressure supercharger without intercooling. Compression ratio dropped slightly, and tuning emphasized low-rpm torque. The 3rd generation Subaru Rex (3-door and 5-door sedan) came in October, 1986 with a wheelbase of 229.5 cm. In August 1981, the second-generation Subaru Rex became front-wheel drive, with all-new bodywork and independent suspension all around. This car actually an update, later-1989 build car, but I'll get to that in a minute.. Add to cart. Experience power like never before in your Subaru Outback with forced induction. In July, export versions (M70 in Europe, Sherpa in Australia) received the same changes and switched from the 665 cc 37 PS (27 kW) two-cylinder to become the M80 in Europe, the Ace in New Zealand and the Fiori in Australia.[24]. It retained the earlier bodywork (albeit broadened by 10 cm and with a lengthened bonnet for an overall length of 3,185 mm or 125.4 in) but got a 490 cc version of the same engine. These external differences did not appear in the Australian market until August, and in Europe (Mini Jumbo, M80) by early 1991. The Vivio RX-R was developed at the time that the DOHC head design appeared. Max power remained 31 PS (23 kW) at a slightly lower 6200 rpm and torque was 4.2 kg⋅m (41 N⋅m; 30 lb⋅ft) at 3500 rpm. This produced 31 PS (23 kW) at a peaky 8000 rpm and 3.0 kg⋅m (29 N⋅m; 22 lb⋅ft) of torque at 6500 rpm, and featured Subaru Exhaust Emissions Control (SEEC). Power increased from the emissions choked late 360s to 31 PS (23 kW) at 6500 rpm, while torque increased to 3.8 kg⋅m (37 N⋅m; 27 lb⋅ft) at 4500 rpm. The L-type Subaru Pleo late in the generation. The EN07A engine (with a carburetor) became EN07E with EMPi. The Justy remained in production until 1994, outliving the next generation Rex and even the Rex label itself. These cars were 9 cm longer than their domestic counterparts, due to bigger bumpers, and received 12-inch wheels (rather than the ten-inch units used for most models in Japan). The EN05 had its stroke lengthened to reach the new 660 cc limit set for kei cars by the Japanese government for March 1990, making it a decidedly long-stroked unit. A two-speed automatic transmission was also available, as was a part-time 4WD syste… The Subaru Rex represented a fresh start designwise, sharing little of its appearance with the Subaru 360, although they were mechanically the same and shared a rear-engine layout. In the European markets, this car was originally marketed as the Subaru 600 or Mini Jumbo. [22] Naturally aspirated models received "cat's eye"-shaped headlamps and a reshaped bonnet while the supercharged models retained the earlier rectangular units, albeit with a new four-hole grille. [25] This, which was to be the last Rex, received chassis codes KH3 (FF sedan), KH4 (4WD sedan), KP3 (FF commercial), and KP4 (4WD commercial). The third generation (KG/KN) was presented in November 1986 with the commercial spec Rex Combi with either three or five doors. Investor Relations. Van equipment levels were Standard and Super Deluxe. Sold as the Subaru Fiori in Australia, this model was also marketed as the M80 and the Mini Jumbo in other export markets. [5] The Rex 5 (K23, K43 in the Van version) engine was still of two cylinders and an overhead cam design, and retained the SEEC-T emissions control system. A supercharged version with an intercooler and electronic fuel injection was added to the options list March 1988 as a response to the success of the Alto Works and Mira TR-XX. Because the Rex's engine was mounted in the rear, the cargo floor was rather high, meaning that more head room would be required before a seat could be installed. This 660 cc DOHC narrows the valve angle slightly aiming for a compact combustion chamber. [4] The Rex also retained the 360/R-2's rear swing axle. 971. As usual, the Vans received a lower powered version of the engine, with 28 PS (21 kW) at 6000 rpm but the same exact torque figures. Three and five-door hatchback versions were available. The appearance of the new Rex was similar to the new larger platform, the Subaru Leone. Darton sleeves and 100mm bore headgaskets have … silly subaru terminology example, but you'd be "stage 4" with your supercharger while a stock xt would be "stage 1" with every avenue still open for the xt and more power. There was now also a 3-valve engine. The BC stroker kit for the 2003-2006 Nissan 350z VQ35DE engine platform incorporates a 86.4mm stroke, steel billet crank, BC 4340 Pro Series steel billet connecting rods w/ARP 220,000 psi fasteners, and features custom 100mm CP aluminum forged pistons, 9310 alloy wrist pins, ring pack and buttons. Second facelift, third generation Rex VX Supercharger (KH3) Subaru Ace (New Zealand) The 550 cc four-cylinder iteration was uncommonly short-lived, as in March 1990 another facelift followed, with a 660 cc version of the EN engine (EN07) and an extended, more rounded nose because of … Images of Subaru Rex Combi Supercharger VX 1988–92. Subaru also did make a three-cylinder engine, called the Subaru EF engine which was used in the Subaru Justy, but the larger EF engine (which was based on the smaller EK23) was not modernized at the same time. Export models were often equipped with a larger version of the EN engine, Subaru's 758 cc carburetted four-cylinder EN08 powerplant. [10] The equipment levels were also reshuffled, with the B-type replacing the Standard and then rising from the AI via the AIG and AII to the AIIG on top. [16] Power remained at 31 PS (23 kW; 31 bhp), with a twin-barrel carburettor. This is an in depth look at the Subaru Vivio RXR supercharged 4 cylinder with all wheel drive. The TS (Touring Sport) received a 35 PS (26 kW) iteration. The A.V. IMPREZA GD SERIES 2.0 & 2.5 MY00 – MYO5 KITS; LIBERTY/LEGACY – H6 3.0 INTERCOOLED KITS [12] A comparatively well-equipped Custom L version of the Van (K44) was added. [22] This was available for both the 3- and 5-door versions. Chassis code was K24, It remained rear-mounted, coupled to a four-speed manual gearbox. A supercharger meant less lag than for a turbo, although specific output tended to be somewhat lower than the competition. It was a replacement for the two-cylinder EK23 that was used in the Subaru Rex. A supercharger is, for all intents and purposes, an air compressor designed to force large amounts of air through your Subaru engine. The larger displacement was attained by stroking the engine to 77.0 mm (3.03 in) while retaining the original's bore and cylinder spacing. So cute. Description Description. There was a turbocharged version of the predecessor, the EK23, used in the Subaru Rex, which competed with the Daihatsu Mira and Suzuki Alto. Subaru Rex Combi Supercharger VX 1988–92. except with an xt you'd be at square one. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, SUBARU Mini Jumbo Models,, Sumo/Libero/Domingo/Columbuss/E series/Estratto,, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 03:21. Subaru Rex Combi 1986–92 wallpapers. [8] The three-door, two-seater "Van" (K42) arrived in February of the next year, when a five-speed version (Custom5) was also added. The Rex 550 was called the Subaru 600 in most export markets. The Van's engine was in a lesser state of tune and produces 27 PS (20 kW). t-rex 2014-2017 torch series led light grille,1 – 30″ led bar, formed mesh, main grille, replacement, 1 pc, black powdercoated mild steel (for off-road use $ 2,054.78 $ 1,694.69. add to cart. The name "Rex" comes from the Latin word for "king". The en­gine was up­graded to a four-stroke SOHCin 1973 to meet Japan­ese Gov­ern­ment emis­sion reg­u­la­tions. A supercharged version with an intercooler and electronic fuel injection was added to the options list March 1988 as a response to the success of the Alto Works and Mira TR-XX. [5] The Van was registerable as a commercial vehicle, allowing for considerable savings in taxes and fees. Where OC is the standard and boxer engines rule the world. We carry bolt-on rotated turbo kits, supercharger kits of various designs. share. Subaru remained faithful to the EN-series until they stopped building kei car engines. Cylinder head channel was changed for Subaru Pleo when heat damage appeared in the cylinder farthest away from the radiator. 168 votes, 73 comments. Subaru Corporation - Corporate Information. I wanna pinch your Subaru Rex cheeks!! The Rex 550, introduced in May 1977, featured the SEEC-T equipped watercooled, two-cylinder, four-stroke 544 cc EK23 series engine. [17] Production ended in September 1986, as Subaru was getting ready to introduce the modernized third generation Rex. The output of the engine increased to 55 PS (40 kW; 54 bhp). The Wagon also received a lower tuned four-stroke engine, with 28 PS (21 kW) at 7500 rpm; but torque increased somewhat to 3.1 kg⋅m (30 N⋅m; 22 lb⋅ft) at 5700 rpm. The Rex superseded the R-2 as Subaru's kei car, and has been available in commercial use versions as well as in a passenger car version. This engine, producing 42 PS (31 kW) at 6,000 rpm, was also used in those European markets that received the Rex and in New Zealand's Ace. We have easy to install, application specific performance turbocharger & supercharger kits. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Sumo/Libero/Domingo/Columbuss/E series/Estratto,, Articles needing additional references from June 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Compression ratio: 10.0 (Naturally Aspirated carburetor) / 8.5 (supercharger), Specifications, naturally aspirated carburetor: 38 PS (28 kW) at 7500 rpm, 4.5 kg⋅m (44 N⋅m) at 4500 rpm (KH2 1986, Specifications, supercharged: 61 PS (45 kW) at 6400 rpm, 7.6 kg⋅m (75 N⋅m) at 4400 rpm (KH2 1986, Specification Reference: 42 PS (31 kW) at 7000 rpm, 5.3 kg⋅m (52 N⋅m) at 4500 rpm (KW series, Specification Reference: 40 PS (29 kW) at 6500 rpm, 5.5 kg⋅m (54 N⋅m) at 3500 rpm (KV3 series Sambar), Specification Reference: 53 PS (39 kW) at 7200 rpm, 5.5 kg⋅m (54 N⋅m) at 5600 rpm (KK3 VIVIO MT version), Specification Reference: 48 PS (35 kW) at 6400 rpm, 5.8 kg⋅m (57 N⋅m) at 3200 rpm (TV1 series Sambar), Specification Reference: 45 PS (33 kW) at 6400 rpm, 5.7 kg⋅m (56 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm, Specification Reference: 55 PS (40 kW) at 6200 rpm, 7.1 kg⋅m (70 N⋅m) at 3800 rpm (KV4 series Sambar Touring), Specification Reference: 58 PS (43 kW) at 6400 rpm, 7.3 kg⋅m (72 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm, SOHC 8-valve supercharger intercooler (mild change), Specification Reference: 60 PS (44 kW) at 6400 rpm, 7.6 kg⋅m (75 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm, SOHC 8-valve supercharged and intercooled, Specification Reference: 64 PS (47 kW) at 6400 rpm, 8.6 kg⋅m (84 N⋅m) at 4400 rpm (Subaru Rex VX / Subaru Vivio GX), Specifications: 54 PS (40 kW) at 6400 rpm, 6.4 kg⋅m (63 N⋅m) at 4400 rpm (R1, R2, Stella), Supercharger intercooler with a DOHC 16 Valve, Specification Reference: 64 PS (47 kW) at 7200 rpm, 10.8 kg⋅m (106 N⋅m) at 4000 rpm (Subaru Vivio RX-R), Specification Reference: 42 PS (31 kW) at 6000 rpm, 59 N⋅m (44 lb⋅ft) at 3600 rpm (European spec M80/Mini Jumbo), This page was last edited on 3 August 2020, at 04:40. sale! In contrast, the 360 was produced for 11 years and the rear-engined Rex was produced for nine. A bored '06 Subaru Impreza owner decided he needed a project over the Easter weekend and hacked an Eaton supercharger from a T-bird onto his little Subie. [22] A CVT transmission was added June 1987, called ECVT. The M80 was available as a three or a five-door, in DX and SDX versions, with the SDX receiving a standard five-speed manual. [15] It was priced at a very low ¥480,000 (under US$2,000 at the time). Subaru Rex Combi 1986–92. Add to wishlist Compare. A total of 1,902,811 Subaru Rexes were built in its lifetime. [3] The large rear window necessitated a slightly smaller opening to the engine compartment, but this was more than made up for by allowing for access to the rear luggage compartment from the outside. Turbo Kits and Supercharger Kits are available at RallySport Direct for those of you who want an all-in-one package for more horsepower and performance. In March 1979, the Rex underwent a very minor facelift, the most visible results being new rims and slightly differing bumpers and a small spoiler in front. Equipped with a different engine, the Fiori had Subaru's 758 cc carburetted four-cylinder EN08 powerplant. In response to new regulations for Kei cars introduced for 1976, Subaru introduced the larger-engined Rex 5 in May of that year. Information for investors: View financial results and more. Chinese Yunque (Guizhou Aircraft Industry Corporation) built the second generation Subaru Rex under license as the Yunque GHK 7060 between 1991 and 2005. Top speed was 125 km/h for four-speeds, 130 km/h for five-speeds.[24]. Three-cylinder engines have proved to be on par with Subaru's four-cylinder designs; while not as smooth running they tend to be lighter and more economical due to lower friction losses. The AII and AIIG versions received disc brakes in front, but the five-speed was no longer available. In October 1973 the two-stroke was replaced by a 358 cc rear-mounted, watercooled, two-cylinder, four-stroke engine called the EK21. In September (1974), along with a minor facelift consisting of a new grille and bumpers adjusted to allow for the fitment of larger license plates, a "Wagon" version (K26) appeared. [5] Optional on-demand 4WD became available after October 1983, a first for the class. The (Japan­ese: Subaru EK series) was used from 1958 until 1989 in … [17] The engine used a single-barrel carburettor. By March, 1988 the 3-valve engine became available with supercharger. [1] The increased stroke helped make up for the lack of low-speed torque, a weakness of the other four-cylinder 660 cc engines. Resolution: 1280 x 960 Size: 0.49 Mb Views: 2578 Ratio: 5/5. Like the EN07F, the high durability version used in the delivery-service version has a rocker cover decorated with a crimson ceramic coating. [5] The 4WD system was electrically engaged by depressing an embedded switch on top of the gear shift. Since its introduction in 1961, the Sambar has used a rear engine, rear wheel drive format (with optional 4WD from 1980 on), with the first two generations using the air-cooled engine from the Subaru 360, and later generations using the water-cooled engine from the Subaru Rex, Vivio and the Pleo.It was the first Kei truck that used a cabover design, with the passenger cabin over the engine. Outputs were 32, 35 or 37 PS (24, 26 or 27 kW) In February 1973 a four-door sedan was added. [6] The GSR was also somewhat lower than its counterparts, due to radial tires being fitted. It also had a fairly advanced (for its time) electronic fuel injection … There was no turbo version of the new Rex. The EK se­ries is a straight twin two-stroke cycle with early air-cooled ver­sions later re­placed with wa­ter-cooled con­fig­u­ra­tions in 1971. This was necessitated by Japanese commercial vehicle regulation which require the floor to be completely flat when the rear seat is folded. The bore pitch remained 62.5 mm (2.46 in) to help keep the changes to a minimum. This was counteracted by the comparatively high level of passenger comfort in the Rex Van. Equipped with a CVT for Pleo; previously called "mild charge". Key to the Rotrex supercharger’s unique compactness, efficiency, low noise and high reliability is its state of the art traction drive technology. The bodyshell of the second generation Rex was also lengthened and widened to become the original Subaru Justy, with a larger 1-litre engine. The second generation Rex (1981–1986) also formed the basis for the larger Subaru Justy. This was replaced with a supercharger for the EN-series. Subaru made much of the "Multi-Use Lever", which combined the headlight, turn signal, and windshield washer functions. The EN series engine is used for kei cars sold by Subaru in Japan. 1989 KH1 Subaru REX VX SUPER *pause* CHARGER. The sedan version, intended for private use, was added a month later. This received four permanent seats, but was no longer registerable as a commercial vehicle and had a considerably lower max load. This was not installed on the lowest spec versions (Type B, Standard). 40 comments. [9] In April 1975 the Van received a higher roof and became a four-seater. The end for the Rex came in March 1992, when it was replaced by the Vivio. The Wagon continued in production until the SEEC-T version was introduced in December, but it lost most of its market with the availability of a four-seater Van. This kit is for someone who wants 800+ Rwhp. The first-launched and latest versions take regular gasoline, but there is also a high-octane gasoline version. [1] Subaru uses Daihatsu three-cylinder units for the Sambar truck (now a rebadged Daihatsu Hijet) since 28 February 2012. The Subaru R2 was fitted with this version from its debut. The Subaru Vivio is a kei car that was introduced in March 1992, and manufactured by Subaru until October 1998. Features Supercharged Turbocharged Subaru WRX STi DSPORT ISSUE# 92 While the ignorant V8 “Mountain-Motor” camp still spouts the “There’s no replacement for displacement” mantra, various methods of forced-induction have proven to be the perfect substitutes for cubic inches. Although this model shape had been on the market since late 1986; it wasn't until 1988 that the VX Supercharger model became available. The four-stroke Rex could reach a top speed of 110 km/h (68 mph). The "Rex Dinos", a trim level introduced in 1982, was only available by mail order catalog. There was no turbo version of the new Rex. Front disc brakes were also introduced as an option at the same time. It adopted direct push and a high lift cam like Toyota, but the timing belt drives only the exhaust camshaft; the method of driving the intake cam is synchronous from there. There was no turbo. Since its introduction in 1061, the Subaru Sambar has used a rear engine, rear wheel drive format (with optional 4WD from 1980 on), with the first two generations using the air-cooled engine from the Subaru 360, and later generations using the water-cooled engine from the Subaru Rex, Vivio and the Pleo. This kit may make your Subaru RS faster than stock WRX but importantly will level your playing field out on the street or track. While other manufacturers adopted a three-cylinder engine, the Subaru EN is a four-cylinder of only 547 cc. This was replaced with a supercharger for the EN-series. The third generation (KG/KN) was presented in November 1986 with the commercial spec Rex Combi with either three or five doors. ALL the money you've spent on your car already + ALL the money you want to spend on getting that supercharger in = basically a stock xt. [7] The car also received a minor facelift (with a "frowny" rather than the smiling grille seen on the turqoise four-door in the infobox being the most obvious difference) and a new chassis code: K22. [13] The Van could take a max load of only 200 kg (440 lb), 100 kg less than most of its competitors. SKU: AP-GRBS-170S Category: Agency Power. The Subaru Rex, also known as Ace, Viki, Sherpa, 500/600/700, Mini Jumbo or M60/M70/M80 in various export markets, is a kei class automobile produced from 1972 to 1992 mainly for sale in Japan by Subaru, although it was also sold in Europe, South America, Australia and the Caribbean. [14], In March 1978 the Swingback version was added, a two-door sedan which received a larger, opening rear window. This was replaced with a supercharger for the EN-series. An automatic clutch option was added on several Rex models in March 1980.[3]. In February, 1987 a permanent four-wheel-drive was added. The Rex originally featured the same water-cooled 356 cc EK34 two-stroke engine as used in the R-2, and was available only as a two-door sedan. Supercharged in-line 4, 660ccs of unbridled power. May 1988 saw an available electrically deployed canvas top added to the three-door. While four-cylinder engines are not typical in kei class cars, Subaru kept using this layout until they stopped manufacturing their own kei vehicles in 2012. Variants include a naturally aspirated model with a carburetor, and the EMPi equipped with a supercharger. The output of the engine increased to 55 PS (40 kW). Was installed in the Pleo Van EGI SPI (single point injection) engine design. Resolution: 640 x 480 Size: 0.12 Mb Views: 1271 Ratio: 5/5. It underwent major changes in 1976, in fall 1981, and again in late 1986. A supercharger meant less lag than for a turbo, although specific output tended to be somewhat lower than the competition. COMMODORE VS V6 Kits; COMMODORE VT VY 3.8L Kits; COMMODORE VP-Vr 3.8L Kits; COMMODORE VN – VS (S2) 304 V8 SHORT KIT; COMMODORE VT-VZ Ls1 5.7 Kits; COMMODORE VZ with Alloytec 3.6 Kits; SUBARU. Used in the Subaru Rex VX (1986–1989) EK23 ThreeValve Supercharger Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0; Piston displacement = 544 cc; Compression ratio = 9.0:1; Three valves per cylinder (two intake, one exhaust) Water-cooled intercooler; maximum output 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) at 6400 rpm; Used in the Subaru Rex Supercharger (1988–1989) In addition to an SOHCtwo-valve engine with 30 PS (22 kW; 30 bhp), a version with three valves per cylinder (two intake and one exhaust) and 36 PS (26 kW; 36 bhp) was also available. At the same time, a "Super L" version of the Van was added. It has a 658 cc (52 PS) multi-point fuel-injected four-cylinder engine (44 PS DIN was claimed in Europe for the same engine), which is small enough to place it in the light car class, giving its owners large tax breaks in Japan. [3] Then, in response to the very low priced Suzuki Alto, a decontented version of the Van called "Family Rex" was added in October 1979. I wanna pinch your Subaru Rex cheeks!! There were also GHK 7060A 'Free Wind' and GHK 7071A 'WOW' iterations, featuring interesting bodykits.[18]. The four-cylinder EN engine was originally marketed as the Clover 4, and Subaru cast the head with a clover-leaf mark, to set it apart from its three-cylinder version. Nonetheless, the EN07 powered three of the five most fuel efficient kei passenger cars in 2009 (heading the list for the third year in a row), when the EN engine was its peak of development.[2]. save hide report. Predecessor of Subaru Pleo and successor of Subaru Rex, the 1992 Vivio is equipped with a supercharged engine able to develop 52 and 44 horsepower … 99% Upvoted. Rex is also a common nickname for the high-performance Subaru Impreza WRX, especially in Australia where the actual Rex was originally marketed as the Sherpa and then as the Fiori. In some export markets, the Sambar microvan has been marketed as the "Rex Combi".[1]. At the time, it was stated that the only parts of the rear-engined predecessor to have remained were "two connecting rods and an ashtray". The MPFI fuel injection (EMPi) was reset to make power at lower engine speeds. This mass volume of air, in conjunction with the appropriate amount of fuel, combine to create more power than could be accomplished through natural aspiration alone. [3] Because the R-2 was based largely on the 360, originally including its air-cooled two-stroke engine, it lasted for not even three years. Agency Power Catback Exhaust System Polished Quad Tips Subaru WRX STI Sedan 11-20 $ 800.00-Agency Power Catback Exhaust System Polished Quad Tips Subaru WRX STI Sedan 11-20 quantity. "Twin Viscous" full-time 4WD with a limited slip differential for the rear axle was made available in February 1987. Club Deadspin Used in the Subaru Rex VX (1986–1989) EK23 ThreeValve Supercharger Bore x Stroke mm = 76.0 x 60.0; Piston displacement = 544 cc; Compression ratio = 9.0:1; Three valves per cylinder (two intake, one exhaust) Water-cooled intercooler; maximum output 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) at 6400 rpm; Used in the Subaru Rex Supercharger (1988–1989) Ford Falcon 5.4 V8 Supercharger Systems; HOLDEN. The Rex (K21), introduced 15 July 1972,[2] was the replacement for the Subaru R-2, which was itself the replacement for the long lived, but outdated Subaru 360. This resulted in the new 660 cc class series of four-cylinder engines, and the EN05 had its stroke increased to produce the EN07. 28 PS became the power output of all versions of the Rex for model year 1976 after the SEEC-T (Subaru Exhaust Emission Control - Thermal and Thermodynamic) emissions control system was introduced in December 1975.